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Researchers use advanced metrics from information theory to describe the behavior of ayu fish – News-Medical.net

Researchers at the University of Tsukuba used advanced metrics from information theory to describe the collective behavior of small schools of ayu fish.

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Researchers at the University of Tsukuba used advanced metrics from information theory to describe the collective behavior of small schools of ayu fish.
They found that the overall dynamics were noticeably different for groups of three or more, compared with smaller groups, even over very short timescales.
This work may help shed light on fundamental problems in complexity theory and assist in the development of cooperative biomimetic swarming robots.
Some of the most difficult questions in science today deal with the same fundamental question: How can complex dynamics arise from simple, local interactions?
For example, schools of fish and flocks of birds can move and turn in near perfect synchrony without any top-down control from a leader.
To try to make progress on this question, integrated information theory (IIT) has been used to provide a mathematical framework for measuring how information passes back and forth from individuals to the group as a whole.
A team including Professor Takayuki Niizato at the University of Tsukuba studied the swimming of Ayu, which are small fish related to smelts. Ayu were randomly chosen and placed in a tank in groups of 2, 3, 4, or 5 fish.
Explains Professor Niizato, “The trajectory of each fish was tracked, and a computer calculated three binary parameters for every fish at each time step.”
“These parameters were as follows: if the subject fish was close to another fish, if the fish was turning, and if another fish was in its field of view.”
“We found that, over times ranging from 40 milliseconds to one second, a grouping of three fish acted very differently than a pair.”
In this study, “integrated information” quantified the extent to which the cause and effect in a system can be explained by the repertoires of its components.
And “integrated conceptual information” was used as an expression of the fish school’s group collective action, roughly how much the behavior of individual members is dependent on the behavior of the group.
The aim of IIT is to try to shift the paradigm from ‘what a system does’ to ‘what a system is.’ The former tries to analyze the system on the basis of observable behavior, while the latter tries to determine its intrinsic causal structure,”
Takayuki Niizato, Professor, University of Tsukuba
This work may help make inroads in some truly difficult questions surrounding group dynamics that emerge naturally when simple components join to form a complex group.
This may also aid in the development of “swarming” robots that, like schools of fish or ant colonies, make use of this principle to achieve complicated goals.
University of Tsukuba
Niizato, T, et al. (2020) Four-Types of IIT-Induced Group Integrity of Plecoglossus altivelis. Entropy. doi.org/10.3390/e22070726.

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Starship SN5 set to attempt a 150-meter flight test – techtoday19

The Starship SN5 prototype is set to attempt a 150-meter test flight as early as Monday from Boca Chica, Texas. The hop will be the first flight of a full-scale Starship tank section. If the hop is successful, it will clear the way for SpaceX to attempt highe…

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The Starship SN5 prototype is set to attempt a 150-meter test flight as early as Monday from Boca Chica, Texas. The hop will be the first flight of a full-scale Starship tank section. If the hop is successful, it will clear the way for SpaceX to attempt higher altitude flights with Starship prototypes.
The launch window for Mondays hop lasts from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Central (13:00 01:00 UTC). However, the hop is currently targeting liftoff during the later portion of the window.
Testing sch…

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Asthma drugs improve performance in healthy non-asthmatic subjects – News-Medical.Net

Popular asthma control drugs β2-agonists such as Albuterol, Formoterol, Terbutaline, etc. that are used as inhalers by millions of asthmatics around the world could have power and stamina enhancing properties in sportspersons, finds a new study.

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Popular asthma control drugs β2-agonists such as Albuterol, Formoterol, Terbutaline, etc. that are used as inhalers by millions of asthmatics around the world could have power and stamina enhancing properties in sportspersons, finds a new study. The analysis titled, “Can β2-agonists have an ergogenic effect on strength, sprint, or power performance? Systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs” was published in the latest issue of the British Journal of Sports Medicine.
The researchers belonging…

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Starship SN5 set to attempt a 150-meter flight test – NASASpaceflight.com

The Starship SN5 prototype is set to attempt a 150-meter test flight as early as…

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The Starship SN5 prototype is set to attempt a 150-meter test flight as early as Monday from Boca Chica, Texas. The hop will be the first flight of a full-scale Starship tank section. If the hop is successful, it will clear the way for SpaceX to attempt higher altitude flights with Starship prototypes.
The launch window for Mondays hop lasts from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Central (13:00 – 01:00 UTC). However, the hop is currently targeting liftoff during the later portion of the window.
Testing s…

Click here to view the original article.

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