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Scientists Have Found the Source for Cosmic Carbon, One of the Main Building Blocks of Life – Interesting Engineering

White dwarfs or supernovae? New research provides insight into which type of star death contributed the carbon of our Universe.

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Stars, like our Sun, not only provided a crucial environment for life during their lifetimes, it turns out they also provide the main building blocks of life during their death. Approximately 90% of all stars end their lives as white dwarfs while the rest explode as supernovae.
RELATED: ASTRONOMERS DISCOVER TWIN BABY STARS GROWING AMONGST GAS AND DUST 
As they collapse, these stars spread their ashes into the surrounding space through stellar winds enriched with chemical elements, including carbon, an element crucial to all life in the Milky Way and other galaxies.
For a long time now, scientists have known that every carbon atom in the universe was created by stars, through the fusion of three helium nuclei. What they were unsure of is whether this carbon came from white dwarfs or supernovae.
Now, an international team of astronomers that analyzed white dwarfs in open star clusters in the Milky Way based on astronomical observations concluded in a study conducted in 2018 at the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii that white dwarfs are responsible for carbon.
The researchers achieved this by studying the relationship between the initial masses of stars and their final masses as white dwarfs, a relationship known as the initial-final mass relation.
“From the analysis of the observed Keck spectra, it was possible to measure the masses of the white dwarfs. Using the theory of stellar evolution, we were able to trace back to the progenitor stars and derive their masses at birth,” said co-author of the new study Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz.
What they found was that the masses of the newly discovered white dwarfs in old open clusters were notably larger than expected. “Our study interprets this peculiarity in the initial-final mass relationship as the signature of the synthesis of carbon made by low-mass stars in the Milky Way,” said lead author Paola Marigo at the University of Padua in Italy.
The researchers then further found that stars bigger than 2 solar masses also contributed to the galactic enrichment of carbon, while stars of less than 1.5 solar masses did not.
“Now we know that the carbon came from stars with a birth mass of not less than roughly 1.5 solar masses,” concluded Marigo. The study is published in the journal Nature Astronomy.

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Missing Sunbury girl Shakira Skillecon

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Please keep an eye our for missing girl Shakira Skillecon who was last seen at a home in Sunbury.

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Missing Sunbury girl Shakira Skillecon

Police are appealing for public assistance to help locate missing Sunbury girl Shakira Skillecon.The 17-year-old was…


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Serious traffic incident, Ripley – Queensland Police News

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Police are investigating a serious traffic incident involving a car and pedestrian at Ripley earlier tonight.

Serious traffic incident, Ripley – Queensland Police News

Police are investigating a serious traffic incident involving a car and pedestrian at Ripley earlier tonight. Just after 7.30pm, the male pedestrian and


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‘What a mess’: Bizarre Bunker call leaves everyone confused – Fox Sports

Confusion reigned supreme on Saturday night as a bizarre mix-up saw the Raiders awarded possession despite replays showing a penalty should have been given to Brisbane.

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It came after the Broncos challenged a knock-on ruling against Jake Turpin.
Replays showed Jack Wighton come out of marker to knock his arm and the Bunker ruled that he had done so from an offside position.
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Round 14
Ref & Bunker left stumped
2:03
Technically it would normally s…

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